NONH for all modes of transport
Having three carbazole units as the pendants and triarylamine at the core, tris(4-carbazoyl-9-ylphenyl)amine (TCTA) is electron-rich. As a result, it is widely used as a hole-transport and hole-injection material in light-emitting diodes and perovskite solar cells. With low electron mobility, TCTA has also been used as exciton/electron blocking layer materials because of its high lying LUMO energy level (LUMO = 2.4 eV).
TCTA is also a very popular phosphorescent host material due to its l